Sweet potatoes are an important crop for maintaining food security in Rwanda, because they can be grown on marginal lands, and cultivation continues in the dry season. Rwandans traditionally grow and consume white-fleshed sweet potatoes high in sugars but low in vitamins. New orange-fleshed varieties high in beta-carotene (a precursor to vitamin A) have been bred by the International Potato Center (CIP) and are suitable to Rwanda. We conducted side-by-side (Phase 2) trials of different improved orange sweet potatoes compared with local varieties, as well as trials to compare the relative effect of variety, fertilizer use, and planting method on sweet potato yields. These trials showed that variety has the largest effect on yields, and Naspot 10 is the best orange sweet potato variety.